English: Orinoco River is the biggest river in Venezuela that serves as part of border with Colombia. Answer. The highest water period is normally in July when the water level at Ciudad Bolívar can go from 40 to 165 feet in depth. The environment in the Orinoco's basin is extremely diverse; it hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna. The Ventuari river brings with it enough sand to form the beaches at San Fernando de Atabapo. (Encyclopedia Britannica), More tributaries flow in, increasing water flow and creating a new set of powerful rapids at Maipures and Atures across from Puerto Ayacucho. Ciudad Bolívar and Ciudad Guayana have developed into important cities, built high enough away from the river banks to prevent flooding. The Orinoco River has more than 400 tributaries. They were explored by German expeditions under Ambrosius Ehinger and his successors. For most of its length, the Orinoco flows through impenetrable rain forest or through the vast grassland (savanna) region of the Llanos (“Plains”), which occupies three-fifths of the Orinoco basin north of the Guaviare River and west of the lower Orinoco River and the Guiana Highlands. The river is shared by Venezuela and Colombia, although 76% of the river is in Venezuela. Media in category "Tributaries of the Orinoco River" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. The Orinoco River flows in a giant arc through rainforests, flooded forests, grasslands, and a delta from where it begins in Venezuela's Sierra Parima Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. There the river turns to the west to run between high alluvial banks, its course marked by extensive sandbars. Other tributaries like the Ocamo join in and the river widens to 1320 ft (500 m) and sandy sediment forms little islands in the riverbed. Orinoco River near Ciudad Guayana, Venez. Puerto Ayacucho, which has an airport with flights in and out of Caracas and other smaller cities, is the main gateway to the state. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Rising near Mt. The delta extends for about 275 miles along the Atlantic coast, from Pedernales on the Gulf of Paria in the northwest to Barima Point in the southeast on the Boca Grande (literally, the “Great Mouth”). The river basin now comprises an important part of Venezuela's modern economy. Its delta and the tributaries were known as Meta and Apure, and explored by German explorers in the 16thCentury under the guidance of Ambrosius Ehinger. Asked by Wiki User. In this section, the river flows slowly through the lowest level of the plains and increases to about five miles in width. Camps and lodges located in the area give visitors the opportunity to explore the cañas by small boat, fish, enjoy the flora and fauna, and go birding. The Manzanares, Iguana, Suata, Pao, Caris, Caroní, Paragua, Carrao, Caura, Aro and Cuchivero rivers add to the Orinoco's bulk. The Macagua and the Guri dams on the Caroní River are among the world’s largest hydroelectric plants. This section of the Orinoco is the most developed and populated. There are tourist and commercial facilities. Colombia is the world's leading producer of emeralds. Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, on the south bank of the Orinoco River. Farther on, the descent slows and waterfalls become rapids, fast and difficult to navigate. There are no actual seasons along the Orinoco, but the rainy season is referred to as winter. Orinoco is a South American river flowing from Brazil through Venezuela to the Atlantic Ocean.The Orinoco is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,140 kilometers. The Orinoco and its tributaries constitute the northernmost of South America’s four major river systems. Away from the mountains they are increasingly fragmented, as in the dissected tableland of the central and eastern Llanos (the Sabana de Mesas) and the hill country (serranía) south of the Meta River in Colombia. The Orinoco, Venezuela's main river, divides the territory into two sections of approximately equal areas. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It begins in April and lasts until October or November. The Orinoco and its tributaries constitute the northernmost of South America’s four major river systems. The Caroní River, one of the Orinoco’s largest tributaries, joins the river on its right bank after passing through the Guri Reservoir formed by Guri (Raúl Leoni) Dam, above Ciudad Guayana (also called Santo Tomé de Guayana). CodyCross is a famous newly released game which is developed by Fanatee. The delta of the Orinoco constantly changes as the river brings sediment to create and enlarge islands, change channels and waterways called caños. The Orinoco is a main river in northern South America.It is one of the longest rivers in South America, at 2,140 km (1,330 mi). Many lagoons, including the Mamo, Amana, and Colorada, are located on the banks of the Orinoco west of its confluence with the Caroní and east of Ciudad Bolívar. The Caroni River, the largest tributary on the lower right bank of the Orinoco River, rises near Alabobo in Mount Roraima (2810 meters above sea level) on the Venezuelan-Brazilian border and flows into the Orinoco River near Ordaz, 920 km in length and has a catchment area of 95,000 square kilometers. Fluctuating in size and depth are the Macareo, Sacupana, Araguao, Tucupita, Pedernales, Cocuima channels as well as a branch of the Grande river. Traffic in and out is by the river and by air, but roads are being built up and maintained, most notably the one to Samariapo, upriver past the rapids.Â. This early-18th century map of the valley of the Orinoco River contains extensive information about the Indian nations bordering the river, Christian missions and other settlements, the extensive array of streams that flow into the Orinoco, and navigational hazards and islands. Tortola, Isla de Tigre, and Mata-Mata are some of the better-known islands of the delta. Here are the tepuis, stone plateaux rearing out of the jungle floor. The Low Plains (Llanos Bajos) are defined by two rivers, the Apure in the north and the Meta in the south. This river drains 70% of the country, receiving flows provided by its tributaries from the Andes, the Cordillera de la Costa, the Llanos and Guayana. The most famous tepuis are Roraima and Auyantepui, from which Angel Falls descend. Farther upstream, on the Churún River (a tributary of the Caroní), are Angel Falls, the highest waterfall in the world (3,212 feet [979 metres]). Downstream from San Fernando de Atabapo, the river flows northward and forms part of the border between Venezuela and Colombia. The Orinoco River is composed of four geographical zones: The Orinoco begins on Delgado Chalbaud mountain, a high, narrow river with waterfalls and difficult, forested terrain. The name Orinoco is derived from Guarauno words meaning “a place to paddle”—i.e., a navigable place.Â. Autotrophic carbon fixation was studied from 1982 to 1985 along a 500—km reach of the Orinoco River, Venezuela, and in three major tributaries (Apure, Caura, Caroni). 144 miles (240 km) downstream, the High Orinoco ends with the Guaharibos rapids. Welcome to big country and one seriously massive river, the impressive Orinoco. Fine-grained soils form hardpans (cemented layers of soils), and in gravel regions, iron-cemented quartz conglomerates underlie the surface. Orinoco River source was found by the Venezuelan-French team, which was near the Venezuelan and Brazilian border. It passes through a transitional zone, the Region of the Rapids (Región de los Raudales), where the Orinoco forces its way through a series of narrow passages among enormous granite boulders. Orinoco is located in the subequatorial zone. The repor… Among the islands in the river at Ciudad Bolívar is the one Alexander von Humboldt named Orinocómetro. This channel, a feature peculiar to the Orinoco River system, is a natural passage that flows generally south until it combines with the Guainía River to form the Negro River, thus linking the Orinoco and Amazon river systems. Shoals and alluvial islands are abundant; some of the islands are large enough to divide the channel into narrow passages. Some 200 major and 600 minor tributaries flow into the Orinoco. Growing into Venezuela's fastest growing city, it sprawls over the river and has incorporated the sixteenth-century village of San Félix on one side and the new city of Puerto Ordaz on the other. Near San Fernando de Atabapo, the Atabapo and Guaviare rivers join the Orinoco, marking the end of the upper Orinoco. This new crossing, at Ciudad Guayana, was built to complement the exist-ing Angostura Bridge (100 km upstream) and is intended to provide a rail connection that enables heavy industrial products to be True. The river here is wide and slow.Â. 1000 mi (1670 km) of the Orinoco are navigable, and about 341 of those can be used for sailing large ships. Where the Meta joins in, the river turns northeast, and with the Cinacuro, Capanaparo and Apure rivers turn east. The Orinoco River has supported the traditional way of life of the Piaroa people for thousands of years. The volume of the river increases as it receives numerous mountain tributaries, including the Mavaca River on the left bank and the Manaviche, Ocamo, Padamo, and Cunucunuma rivers on the right. Major left tributary of the Orinoco River in eastern Colombia and southern Venezuela, South America. It originates in the Sierra Parima at 1,074 m and receives water from more than 2,000 tributaries before discharging into the Atlantic Ocean. A tropical climate means that an area remains cool all year long. The Delta del Orinoco (Mariusa) in the delta covers 331000 hectares of forest, marshes, mangroves, varied flora and fauna. The Casiquiare and Esmeralda rivers flow out of the Orinoco to join with another to form the Rio Negro which eventually reaches the Amazon. Lodgings, known as camps, offer various degrees of comfort. The Atlantic coast forms its base, 165 mi (275 km) long between Pedernales and the Gulf of Pariah to the north, and Punta Barima and the Amacuro to the south, currently extending 12,000 sq mi (30,000 sq km), is still growing in size. It produces some 21 percent of Venezuelan oil. If we talk about feeding the river, then basically the river is filled by abundant tropical rains. The delta here is prone to extreme tidal action. Combined, the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers account for 25% of the freshwater discharge to the world’s oceans. Orinoco River. Throughout most of its course it flows through Venezuela, except for a section that forms part of the frontier between Venezuela and Colombia. Over 200 rivers are tributaries to the mighty Orinoco which extends 1290 mi (2150 km) from source to delta. Alexander von Humboldt explored the basin in 1800. False. It has many crosswords divided into different worlds and groups. The Orinoco is the second longest river in Venezuela, covering a distance of 1330 miles. 1000 mi (1670 km) of the Orinoco are navigable, and about 341 of those can be used for sailing large ships. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Introduction The Orinoco River is … About 30 miles downstream of Ciudad Guayana, at the town of Barrancas, the Orinoco begins to form its great delta. The main channel of the Orinoco, known in the delta as the Río Grande, flows eastward from Barrancas to discharge into the Boca Grande. True. He reported on the ri… Over 200 rivers are tributaries to the mighty Orinoco which extends 1290 mi (2150 km) from source to delta. The river's flow besides at the Parima range near the Brazil-Venezuela border. ... Tributaries of the Orinoco River‎ (13 C, 5 F) Media in category "Orinoco River" The following 69 files are in this category, out of 69 total. These peoples live in intimate relationship with the rivers of the basin, using them as a source of food as well as for purposes of communication. Find out Orinoco tributary found in Colombia Answers. The Guiana Highlands, also known as the Guyana Shield, covers the remainder. Navigation, where possible on this part of the river, is by shallow dugout, or canoe. Below the town of Esmeralda, some of the waters of the Orinoco flow south into the Casiquiare River (Brazo Casiquiare; sometimes called the Casiquiare Channel). The waters fall in a succession of rapids, ending with the Atures Rapids. The most important indigenous groups include the Guaica (Waica), also known as the Guaharibo, and the Maquiritare (Makiritare) of the southern uplands, the Warrau (Warao) of the delta region, and the Guahibo and the Yaruro of the western Llanos. To the south of the river is almost half of Venezuela's territory. Dredging keeps the main channels open for navigation, but in the back channels, where mangroves and vegetation are lush. The High Plains (Llanos Altos) are most conspicuous near the Andes, where they form extensive platforms between rivers and are some 100 to 200 feet above the valley floors. The Atures Rapids mark the beginning of the lower Orinoco basin, in which the river makes its great bend to the east. The Northern Andes and the Orinoco River basin and its drainage network. Tributaries include the Guárico, Manapire, Suatá (Zuata), Pao, and Caris rivers, which enter on the left bank, and the Cuchivero and Caura rivers, which join the main stream on the right. The Guyana Shield is composed of pre-Cambrian rock, up to 2.5 billion years old, and some of the oldest on the continent. Excessive acidity and the lack of nutrient bases, organic matter, and nitrogen make virtually all mature soils infertile. The main tributary to the Orinoco River is the Apure River. Most of the Venezuelan aboriginal population lives within the Orinoco River basin. Updates? The Orinoco and its tributaries constitute the northernmost of South America’s four major river systems. The Orinoco River – the third largest river in the world – is 2,500 km long. Scores of islands are connected by innumerable canals (caños), which form an intricate network. Its drainage basin is the third largest in South America, with an area of 830,000 km². Orinoco River This mighty river is one of the most beautiful and powerfull rivers in the world. The lowest portion of the Llanos is an area that lies to the west of the lower Orinoco valley; this area is converted annually into an inland lake by flooding. 60 miles (100 km) from the source, the first tributary, the Ugueto, joins the Orinoco. From its headwaters the river flows west-northwest, leaving the mountains to meander through the level plains of the Llanos. Founded in 1961, Ciudad Guayana, downstream from Ciudad Bolívar, produces steel, aluminum, and paper, thanks to power generated by the Macagua and Guri dams on the Caroní River. Anglers will spend time here exploring clear flowing tributaries and hidden lagunas and can stand in foot deep, crystal-clear water when casting to giant Peacocks, many over 20lbs. There is a major highway between Caracas and Ciudad Guayana, but much of the area's transportation needs are still served by the Orinoco. Amazonas is Venezuela's largest state, and contains two very large national parks, Parima Tapirapecó and Serranía de la Neblina, plus smaller parks and natural monuments, such as Cerro Autana, a tepuy south of Puerto Ayacucho, which is the sacred mountain of the Piaroa tribe who believe it to be the birthplace of the universe. Tourist Visa Requirements for South America, The Largest and Smallest Countries in South America, Travel to Central and South America: A Reopening Timeline, Country by Country, Caracas, Venezuela - South America Travel Guide, South American Wildlife: Animals You Cannot Miss, The Sloths of South America Are the Most Adorable Animal You Will Meet. Omissions? This is the only place where the Orinoco is not navigable.Â, Extending from the Atures rapids to Piacoa, this 570 mi (950 km) accepts the bulk of the tributary rivers. https://www.britannica.com/place/Orinoco-River, Orinoco River - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Here too is the Cueva del Guácharo, the cave with prehistoric petroglyphs discovered by Humboldt as he explored the area.Â. The Llanos encompasses nearly all of the western lower Orinoco basin, occupying some 220,000 square miles; most of the land is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Bonnie is a freelance writer born and raised in South America who has covered the continent for 11 years. Since the oil strikes in the mid 20th century, the industrialization, commercialization, and population have grown. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. During the rainy season, the river reaches a width of 13 mi (22 km) at San Rafael de Barrancas and a depth of 330 ft (100 m). North of the Orinoco is the vast, grassy plains called llanos. The most notable fall in this area, at 56 ft (17 m) is Salto Libertador. Along the bend, it receives the largest number of tributaries of its entire course, including the Meta, Arauca, and Capanaparo rivers. A vast delta of the Orinoco River, it comprises a network of tributaries which empty into Gulf of Paria and the Atlantic Ocean. Be the first to answer this question. Huge tropical forest areas cover the southwestern portion part, and large portions are still virtually inaccessible. It is the home of the Warao tribe who continue their traditional lifestyle of hunter/fishers. Since the 1930s this region has been developing into one of the most industrialized areas of South America. Bordered by the Andes Mountains to the west and the north, the Guiana Highlands to the east, and the Amazon watershed to the south, the river basin covers an area of about 366,000 square miles (948,000 square km). The Late Miocene sedimentary record of the Orinoco River delta appears east of Maturin, in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, and Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic sediments are especially evident in Trinidad and the Columbus Basin. The mouth of the Orinoco was recorded by Christopher Columbus on 1 August 1498. It has its own airstrip and can accommodate up to thirty people. Over the next 450 miles (750 km), from the Guaharibos rapids to the Atures rapids, the Orinoco runs west until the Mavaca river joins it and the waters turn north. Orinoco River, Spanish Río Orinoco, major river of South America that flows in a giant arc for some 1,700 miles (2,740 km) from its source in the Guiana Highlands to its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean. Where the Atabapo, Guaviare and Irínida rivers join the flow, the Orinoco widens to almost 5000 ft (1500 m). False. Its source, however, was first explored by non-native people in 1951, 453 years later. It was explored by a team of Venezuelan and French people. After its bifurcation in the Casiquiare, the Orinoco bends to the northwest and flows in great meandering curves to its confluence with the Ventuari River. Under the watchful eye of the local Sikuani tribe, the deep and powerful Orinoco River is capable of producing the fish of legend that regularly spool anglers. The country of … The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,140 kilometres. The Casiquiari River connects the Orinoco near its source with the Negro River, a branch of the Amazon. It serves as a measurement tool for the rise and fall of the river. Orinoco tributary found in Colombia. Therefore, the river is characterized by sharp fluctuations in the water level: in the dry season, several Orinoco tributaries turn into small standing lakes. The map includes a keyed index and a detailed historical note on the exploration of the river from 1682 to 1732. The savanna was given its name by the Spaniards in the 16th century and long has been used as a vast cattle range. The source is placed in Venezuela, at the southern end of the Parima Mountains, near Mount Delgado Chalbaud, at an elevation of some 3,300 feet (1,000 metres). So much sediment is carried by these rivers that islands often form at the mouths. Posted by krist on 5 May 2019, 8:51 pm. During the rainy season, the river reaches a width of 13 mi (22 km) at San Rafael de Barrancas and a depth of 330 ft (100 m). The rain-swollen torrents from the highlands carry dirt and rocks and other material from the highlands into the Orinoco. The Apure River contributes waters from numerous Andean streams, which form a swampy maze in their lower courses. It flows west, next north, creating the border with Colombia, and then turns east and bisects Venezuela on its way to the Atlantic. 1. Corrections? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Orinoco river system is one of the largest in South America, originating along the southern borders of Venezuela and Brazil, in the state of Amazonas. Seasonal changes between saturation and dehydration have led to advanced laterization of the soil, the process in which the base minerals have been leached away or incorporated into insoluble iron and aluminum silicates. The most well-known camp is Yutajé Camp, in the Manapiare Valley east of Puerto Ayacucho. Who doesn't love being #1? Boasting the title of fourth largest river in the world, the Orinoco stretches an impressive 2140 km from its source in the Prima mountain range and directly affects a watershed of over 880 000 km2, known as the Orinoquia. It is pushing out into the Atlantic ocean, but as the sediment gathers and spreads outwards, the weight of it creates the sinking that also changes the topography of the delta. The waters begin to recede in August, and by November are again at a low point. A smaller southeastern tributary, the Churún, flows over Angel Falls, the highest waterfall in the world (see Angel Falls). The delta region covers Barrancas and Piacoa. The Meta originates in the Eastern Ranges of the Andes and flows through the Meta Department, Colombia as the confluence of the Humea, Guatiquía and Guayuriba rivers. Unable to handle this excess, the river rises and floods the llanos and surrounding areas. The Cunucunuma river joins it, and the Orinoco veers to the northwest, bordering the Guyanese Shield. The name Orinoco is derived from Warao (Guarauno) words meaning “a place to paddle”—i.e., a navigable place. The mouth of the river was found by Christopher Columbus on his third voyage on August 1st, 1498, which has its source in Cerro Delgado-Chalbaud in the Parima Range, though it was not explored until the year 1951. The Orinoco river basin is huge, estimated between 880,000 and 1,200,000 square km. What is the names of the tributaries that run into the orinoco river? Author of. It encompasses approximately four-fifths of Venezuela and one-fourth of Colombia. It is a river that becomes clear blue in the dry season and offers an incredible land scape with it’s huge rounded boulders tattoed with years and years of different wáter levels. 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