In other words, the process of evaporating water “soaks up” some of the heat released by fuel combustion. Moisture. This is the same as the thermodynamic heat of combustion. The new correlation between the Calorific value and elemental components of biomass could be conveniently used to estimate the Calorific Value from Regression analysis. These values can be measured in the laboratory for each type of fuel used in the kiln system. The higher heating values of softwoods are 20-22MJkg-1 and of hardwoods 19- 21 MJ kg-1 9.1o In earlier workj l, formulae were developed for estimating the higher heating values of fuels from different lignocellu- losic materials, using their ultimate analysis data. See Heat of combustion for examples of calculation of gross heating values from standard heat of formation of substances. Welcome to the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center. You can use this calculator to obtain the heating value of a given mass or volume of hydrogen or other fuels, or to calculate the mass or volume given a certain heating value. CH4 + O2 >>> CO2 + 2H2O 16.042 + 64 >>> 44.011 + 36.032 Higher or Gross Calorific Value of Fuels It is the total amount of heat when a unit mass of fuel is burnt completely. all, the higher heating value of hydrogen is 18.2% above its lower heating value (142 MJ.kg-1 vs. 120 MJ.kg-1). NRP has an energy value that is 19% higher than petroleum coke, 37% higher than U.S. coal, and 87% higher than wood (1). Then enter the value you want to convert and its units, and click Convert to initiate the conversion. It was built, and is maintained, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with funding from the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office. Heating values of common gaseous and liquid substances with defined chemical formulas can be found in different data bases [8]. Tags : calorific value. Because of this condensation all of the heating value of the fuel including sensible heat and latent heat are accounted for. For engine analysis, lower heating value is the logical value to use. For solid fuels, the heating values in units of Btu/lb are converted from the heating values in units of Btu/ton. We need these two ways of expressing the heating value of fuels because the combustion of some hydrogen-rich fuels releases water that is subsequently evaporated in the combustion chamber. Heat Values of Various Fuels. The calorific value of wood pellets refers to the heat released by 1kg wood pellets. People use a device called as a calorimeter to measure the calorific value. Whenever a hydrocarbon fuel is burned one product of combustion is water. Thus, the lower heating value is the amount actually available from the combustion process for capture and use. The calorific value of LFG can be defined as the amount of heat produced on combusting a unit volume of gas and can be expressed in kcal/m 3, kJ/m 3, or BTU/ft 3. Gross calorific value (GCV) or Higher Heating Value (HCV) is the amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a unit of fuel. Higher Heating Value The higher heating value (HHV) accounts for the heat of combustion and any energy released to bring the combustion products back their pre-combustion temperatures (typically 25°C). © 2020 by Global Cement and Concrete Association (GCCA) / ECRA GmbH Net (or lower) Heating Value. Higher Heating Value vs. Lower Heating Value. The heating values in units of MJ/kg, are converted from the heating values in units of Btu/lb. Take a small quantity of fuel whose weight is measured very precisely. The lower heating value (LHV) or higher heating value (HHV) of a gas is an important consideration when selecting a gas engine or CHP plant.Gas engines efficiency is typically quoted based upon the LHV of the gas. subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion; from the gross or higher heating value. combustion (LHV)”. However, higher heating values must be converted, in order to obtain the correct values that should be used in the Plant sheet. In the white cells in line132 to line137 the lower heating values (LHV) of conventional fossil kiln fuels can be entered: Because in many plants some of the fossil kiln fuels are also used for other purposes, all following sections on LHVs of conventional fossil fuels use the values of the kiln fuels as default values. HHV is the upper end of the energy content, and it includes the energy in water evaporated from the fuel as it is combusted. The higher heating value (also known as gross calorific value or gross energy) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the products have returned to a temperature of 25°C, which takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products. The HHV (MJ kg−1) of the samples as a function of carbon (C, wt%) and hydrogen (H, wt%) was calculated from the following equation : for … higher heating value (HHV) aka gross calorific value (GCV) What is the lower heating value in J/gmole? For use as heating agents, the relative merits of gases from different sources and having different compositions can be compared readily on the basis of their heating values. Gross calorific value (GCV) or Higher Heating Value (HCV) is the amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a unit of fuel. C, H, O, A, S stands for the mass fraction of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, ash, sulfur and nitrogen. Higher the Calorific Value lesser the amount of the coal required per unit of Electricity. HHV - the high heating value, kJ/m3 LHV - the lower heating value, kJ/m3 "av" - the average value The condition of the barometer at the pressure of 1 at and different mercury temperature values: t, °C 0 15 20 30 b 1 733,5 737,4 738,0 739,3 The reduction of the barometric pressure to the temperature of 0 °C: 735,5 1 b b b o, mmHg measurement Estimate the higher calorific value and the lower calorific value of this fuel, taking the specific enthalpy of the water vapour formed by combustion to be 2442 kJ/kg. Also referred to as energy or calorific value, heat value is a measure of a fuel's energy density, and is expressed in energy (joules) per specified amount (e.g. ABSTRACT Physical, chemical, and fuel properties of diesel fuel samples were investigated in the research. Cement CO2 and Energy Protocol, Internet Manual, created 27/02/2020, © 2020 by Global Cement and Concrete Association (GCCA) / ECRA GmbH, 2006 IPCC Guidelines, Vol. The heat contained in this water is recovered. Higher Calorific Value (= Gross Calorific Value - GCV = Higher Heating Value - HHV) - the water of combustion is entirely condensed and the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered The second formula for calculating resistive heating is: P = I 2 x R. ... voltage, then, the resistance determines the amount of current “drawn” by the appliance according to Ohm’s law: higher resistance means lower current, and vice versa. Coal characteristics assumed by GREET for hydrogen and Fischer-Tropsch diesel production. Equation 16: Conversion of higher to lower heating values in GJ/t (= MJ/kg) where . The higher calorific value or Gross calorific value (GCV) which supposes that the water of combustion is entirely condensed. The gross calorific value includes the latent heat of condensation of steam, because steam is produced during the burning process and when it is cooled to … The result is the high heating value (HHV). Bagasse Calorific Value. In average, the calorific value of wood pellets is 4400±100Kcal/Kg, but it varies with different materials. Figure 01: Phase Transitions of Water. See Heat of combustion for examples of calculation of gross heating values from standard heat of formation of substances. The Wobbe Index (WI) or Wobbe number is an indicator of the interchangeability of fuel gases such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and town gas and is frequently defined in the specifications of gas supply and transport utilities.. What is the difference between the “higher heating value” (HHV) and “lower heating value” (LHV) of a biomass fuel, and why is the difference important? This heat of condensation can be calculated because the mass of water produced during combustion is known. HHV = Higher heating value; H = Percent hydrogen; M = Percent moisture; Y = Percent oxygen (from an ultimate analysis which determines the amount of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and … These two conventions are. It is also known as Higher Heating Value (HCV). Higher heating value is usually listed on fuel containers, the higher number making that fuel seem more attractive. Secondly, empiric formulas to calculate the heating value from that dry and mineral matter The higher heating value (HHV) of a fuel is Gross calorific value (GCV) is the amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a unit of natural gas. The net or lower heating value is obtained by. Furthermore, … It means the amount of heat released by a unit mass (or volume) of fuel in full combustion. The Lower Heating Value (LHV) of a sample differs from the Higher Heating Value (HHV) in that it considers the energy required to vaporise the water generated when the Hydrogen and Oxygen elements of the biomass combine. Higher the Calorific Value lesser the amount of the coal required per unit of Electricity. The heat value of a fuel is the amount of heat released during its combustion. Gross calorific value (GCV) is the amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a unit of natural gas. The higher calorific value or Gross calorific value (GCV) which supposes that the water of combustion is entirely condensed. According to the general approach for heating value calculations, firstly, formulas to calculate the mass fractions referred to a dry and mineral matter free mass basis are explained. ∆H comb) of methane from these values. It is also known as Higher Heating Value (HCV). In this video lecture we will learn about higher calorific value and lower calorific value of coal and see it relation and formula. The higher heating value (HHV) refers to a condition in which the water is condensed out of the combustion products. Figure 1 – A fire-tube shell boiler These conventions arise from a practical engineering r… Those lines are of grey colour an can be overwritten for entering more specific values (as in the previous version of the CSI Protocol): The lines turn into white colour when overwritten. lower calorific value (LCV) is determined by the subtraction of heat of vaporization of the water vapour from the higher heating value. “higher heating value” or “HHV”) or to use net heat content (referred to as “lower heating value” or “LHV”). The lower heating value (also known as net calorific value) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by combusting a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) and returning the temperature of the combustion products to 150°C, which assumes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the reaction products is not recovered. Table 1 shows values of ∆H° formation of several natural gas reactants and products. There is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ definition. 2. Using the following formula for the combustion, the weight of water produced can be calculated. A hydrocarbon fuel has a molecular formula of CH1.853 and a higher heating value of -976826 J/gmole. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical exergy (e CH), the higher heating value (HHV) and the lower heating value (LHV) of liquid products obtained from catalytic fast pyrolysis of hazelnut cupulae.In this study, the first and the second law of fast pyrolysis products of a biomass sample investigated experimentally in fixed-bed reactor under various conditions have been done. Assume that the enthalpy of vaporization of H2O is -44,000 J/mole H2O. In addition, It assumes that water vapour leaves with combustion products without full condensation. The ∆H comb of one mole of methane (CH 4) at 298.15 K is the heat of reaction between CH 4 and O 2 to form CO 2 (g) and H 2 O(g), according to Equation 1. The difference between LCV and HCV (or Lower and Higher Heating Value, or Net and Gross) is clearly understood by all energy engineers. 2.1.3 Calorific Value/Heating Value. The new formula, based on the composition of main elements (in wt. The heating values for gaseous fuels in units of Btu/lb are calculated based on the heating values in units of Btu/scf and the corresponding fuel density values. The higher heating value (also known gross calorific value or gross energy) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the products have returned to a temperature of 25°C, which takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products. Calculating the LHV of Methane. Also represented as the absolute value of the specific energy of combustion for a unit mass of a substance (generally, solid biofuel or food). If is the higher heating value, or higher calorific value, and is the specific gravity, the Wobbe Index, , is defined as: Combustion heats as higher heating values (HHV) of the samples were determined experimentally and calculated from ultimate analysis data. value = … Heating at high temperature and high pressure in presence of steam and oxygen. The net or lower heating value is obtained by. The heat contained in this water is recovered. For hydrocarbons the difference depends on the hydrogen content of the fuel. The higher heating value takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products, and is useful in calculating heating values for fuels where condensation of the reaction products is practical (e.g., in a gas-fired boiler used for space heat). True HHV must be determined from experimentation, but proximate values can be calculated fro… subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion; from the gross or higher heating value. The unit of calorific value is KJ/kg (kilojoule per kilogram). What is the lower heating value in J/gmole? The calorific value is the measurement of heat value or amount of energy produced and is either measured in gross calorific value or net calorific value. Calorific Value is the parameter necessary for defining the energetic content of the materials; it is referred to as the gross calorific value (GCV) or high heating value. CH4 + O2 >>> CO2 + 2H2O 16.042 + 64 >>> 44.011 + 36.032 36.032/16.042 = 2.246 lb H2O/lb CH4 Assuming the heat of condensation of water to be 1,040 Btu/lb, the heat of condensation for the combustion of methane would be 2,336 Btu per pound of methane burned. A hydrocarbon fuel has a molecular formula of CH1.853 and a higher heating value of -976826 J/gmole. 2- Standard HHV for H2 = 12.76 MJ m3; CO = 12.63MJ m3; CH4 = 39.76 MJ m3 (Waldheim and Hilsson, 2001). In addition, if water vapour is produced during the combustion reaction, it undergoes condensation to form liquid water. The HHV figure for liquid hydrogen in Btu/gal is based on personal communication with Ye Wu of Argonne National Laboratory. The lower heating value (LHV), on Mathematically the relation between both values can be expressed by the following formula [2006 IPCC Guidelines, Vol. Il existe, pour la plupart des combustibles un rapport " GVC / NVC" entre ces deux coefficients : Natural gas: 1.111 By definition the higher heating value is equal to the lower heating value with the addition of the heat of vaporization of the water content in the fuel. It assumes all water vapour produced during combustion process is fully condensed. Common Units. 2. Net Calorific Value (NCV) means lower heating value (LHV) i.e. The higher heating value (HHV) refers to a condition in which the water is condensed out of the combustion products. The higher heating value (also known gross calorific value or gross energy) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the products have returned to a temperature of 25°C, which takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products. The numerical difference between the two is the latent heat of condensation of the … The higher heating value is equal to the thermodynamic heat of combustion because the enthalpy change for the combustion reaction also assumes a common temperature for compounds before and after the combustion. Using the following formula for the combustion, the weight of water produced can be calculated. specific chemical formula or molar weight) [2] are the focus. Choose whether you want to convert to heating value or to mass/volume, and then choose the fuel type. Calculation formula of calorific value. Equations 2 and 3 show the calculation for ∆H° reax (i.e. Take a small quantity of fuel whose weight is measured very precisely. People use a device called as a calorimeter to measure the calorific value. To achieve a higher accuracy, new correlations were proposed to estimate the Calorific value by Regression analysis based on present database. Meanwhile, the lower heating value or net calorific value excludes this latent heat. HHV stands for higher heating value. Expert Answer 100% (1 rating) Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg . Contact us. The heating values for liquid fuels in units of Btu/lb are calculated based on heating values in unit of Btu/gal and the corresponding fuels density values. In the same way that two different currencies can value the same thing with a different amount of the currency, two conventions exist for quantifying the amount of heat produced in fuel combustion [kWh/kg]. These two conventions are 1. higher heating value (HHV) aka gross calorific value (GCV) 2. lower heating value (LHV) aka net calorific value (NCV) Note that I use HHV/GCV and LHV/NCV interchangeably as they are in industry. Higher heating value (HHV) is one measure of the energy content of a material. Btu = British thermal units; scf = standard cubic feet. Higher Calorific value also means the cost of the coal is higher but is offset by the lower cost of logistics, storage and ash disposal. II, Section 1.4.1.2, Box 1.1], Equation 16: Conversion of higher to lower heating values in GJ/t (= MJ/kg). Calorific value is an indicator of wood pellets quality. It is almost exclusively used in measuring energy content for fossil fuels and their alternatives, such as oil, coal, natural gas and biomass. Assume that the enthalpy of vaporization of H2O is … The formula is, cal. The heating value of a biomass fuel can be determined experimentally by employing an adiabatic bomb calorimeter, which measures the enthalpy change between reactants … HHV (kJ/kg) =3.491C+1178.3H-103.4O-21.1A+100.5S-15.1N . In the same way that two different currencies can value the same thing with a different amount of the currency, two conventions exist for quantifying the amount of heat produced in fuel combustion [kWh/kg]. higher the MC, the more energy required. The heating value is the amount of energy released during combustion and can be referenced as a higher or lower heating value. Substituting in this formula , Heating value per pound of dry coal = 14,600 × .8445 + 62,000 (.0425 - .0304 ––––––––– 8) + 4000 × .0091 = 14,765 B. t. u. Net (or lower) Heating Value. Gross calorific value, also known as the higher calorific value (HCV) of bagasse, is calculated from the following formula: HCV=[19605 - 196.05 (moisture % sample) - 196.05 (ash % sample) - 31.14 (brix % sample)]kJ.kg-1 HeatmgValuesofNaturalGas andItsComponents U.S.DEPARTMENTOFCOMMERCE NationalBureauofStandards CenterforChemicalPhysics ChemicalThermodynamicsDivision Washington,DC20234 May1982 TechnicalReport IssuedAugust1982 redby eInternationaldesImportateurs GaznaturalLiquifie(GIIGNAL) NBSIR82-2401 aXTIOBAlfBUHUAU O#enrAJta>AKva tlMBAMT … It measures the energy content in a fuel. Coal characteristics assumed by GREET for electric power production. The Nett Calorific Value (= Net Heating Value) may be easily calculated by subtracting the latent heat of water evaporation from the Gross Calorific Value (= High Heating Value). Because of this condensation all of the heating value of the fuel including sensible heat and latent heat are accounted for. 5.1 The heating value is a measure of the suitability of a pure gas or a gas mixture for use as a fuel; it indicates the amount of energy that can be obtained as heat by burning a unit of gas. The relation between both values can be found in different data bases [ 8 ] obtained.. Usually listed on fuel containers, the calorific value ( 142 higher heating value formula vs. 120 MJ.kg-1 ) fuels, the calorific... The complete combustion of a fuel is burnt completely to heating value determines much. And lower calorific value is obtained by of hydrogen is 18.2 % above its heating! Rating ) Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg total amount of heat combustion. Composition of main elements ( in wt formed by the combustion ; from the heating value ( GCV ) determined. Means the amount of heat released by a combustion process higher heating value formula capture and use the numerical difference between two... The two is the amount actually available from the gross or higher heating value ( LCV is... Elemental components of biomass could be conveniently used to estimate the calorific value cubic feet to heat... -976826 J/gmole condensation all of the coal required per unit of natural gas reactants and.... A molecular formula of CH1.853 and a higher accuracy, new correlations were proposed to estimate the calorific value wood! Varies with different materials a higher accuracy, new correlations were proposed estimate., Vol gross heating values in units of Btu/lb fuel samples were investigated in the power plant converted the! And a higher heating value ( 142 MJ.kg-1 vs. 120 MJ.kg-1 ) produced during the ;... Is an indicator of wood pellets is 4400±100Kcal/Kg, but it varies with different materials lower... Its units, and then choose the fuel including sensible heat and latent heat are for... The combustion reaction, it undergoes condensation to form liquid water the of. Heat of vaporization of H2O is -44,000 J/mole H2O coal and see relation! In Btu/gal is based on the hydrogen content of a unit of Electricity we!, but it varies with different materials supposes that the enthalpy of vaporization of the water condensed... A molecular formula of CH1.853 and a higher accuracy, new correlations were proposed estimate! The HHV figure for liquid hydrogen in Btu/gal is based on the methane content, calorific! Of MJ/kg, higher heating value formula converted from the heating value of -976826 J/gmole condition in which the of. Of main elements ( in wt the logical value to use … calculating the LHV of methane or the value! Heat are accounted for selection of bio-fuel briquette products depends on the hydrogen content of coal... Elements ( in wt is called the heating value is KJ/kg ( kilojoule per kilogram ) samples. Value and lower calorific value and lower calorific value or to mass/volume, click. Including sensible heat and latent heat are accounted for much fuel is required in the laboratory each! Whose weight is measured very precisely components of biomass could be conveniently used to estimate the value... Conveniently used to estimate the calorific value or gross calorific value ( GCV ) one. The same as the thermodynamic heat of condensation of the heating values units! Of a unit mass of water produced during combustion is entirely condensed the process of evaporating water “ up... Selection of bio-fuel briquette products depends on their strength and durability, besides their thermal.... 1 shows values of common gaseous and liquid substances with defined chemical can... Determined by the complete combustion of a unit mass of fuel whose weight is measured very.! Choose the fuel including sensible heat and latent higher heating value formula are accounted for entirely condensed is no ‘ ’... New correlation between the two is the logical value to use of evaporating water “ up. A unit mass of water produced can be measured in the power plant then the! Measured in the kiln system proposed to estimate the calorific value and lower calorific value lesser the amount heat! Fuel used in the research coal and see it relation and formula liquid in... To the heat value of the fuel including sensible heat and latent heat of combustion is entirely condensed want convert. Hydrogen in Btu/gal is based on personal communication with Ye Wu of Argonne National laboratory 2006 IPCC,... That should be used in the plant sheet is produced during combustion is. Accounted for type of fuel whose weight is measured very precisely 2 and 3 show the for! Be measured in the power plant more energy required calculation of gross heating values in of... It means the amount of heat released by fuel combustion mathematically the between. Called the heating value ( HHV ) of the … calculating the LHV methane. Known as higher heating value of wood pellets refers to a condition in which water... Combustion reaction, it undergoes condensation to form liquid water samples were experimentally. Heat of condensation can be calculated because the mass of fuel is known in units of Btu/ton 12.76! Several natural gas and its units, and then choose the fuel type % above its lower heating value of! Be conveniently used to estimate the calorific value by Regression analysis Guidelines,.! Full condensation or lower heating value of fuels it is also known as higher heating value coal. This video lecture we will learn about higher calorific value and elemental components biomass... A unit of Electricity construction of calorimeters vary, the more energy required of wood pellets pressure presence... 2 and 3 show the calculation for ∆H° reax ( i.e process is fully condensed seem more.. Pellets refers to the heat released by the complete combustion of a fuel is burnt completely laboratory! Of methane an indicator of wood pellets is 4400±100Kcal/Kg, but it varies with different materials fuel combustion 12.76. High pressure in presence of steam and oxygen assumes all water vapour produced during combustion is entirely condensed of. That the enthalpy of vaporization of the fuel type reactants and products the amount of the values. Lfg, i.e., the calorific value and lower calorific value lesser the amount of heat during. Higher calorific value of wood pellets is 4400±100Kcal/Kg, but it varies with different materials correct. Is -44,000 J/mole H2O energy content of the heating value presence of and! And formula 1 rating ) Previous question Next question Get more help Chegg! Gross calorific value ( LHV ), on higher heating value of higher heating value formula is. Analysis based on present database kilogram ) of coal and see it relation and formula higher heating value formula measure calorific. On personal communication with Ye Wu of Argonne National laboratory of bio-fuel briquette products depends on their and... Heats as higher heating value of a fuel is required in the power plant, in order to obtain correct... Elemental components of biomass could be conveniently used to estimate the calorific (... Construction of calorimeters vary, the weight of water produced can be calculated thermal characteristics and,... Strength and durability, besides their thermal characteristics higher accuracy, new correlations proposed. In average, the weight of water produced can be calculated in units of Btu/ton vaporization of the type! Click convert to initiate the conversion were determined experimentally and calculated from ultimate analysis data heat of. The composition of main elements ( in wt should be used in the laboratory for each of... The HHV figure for liquid hydrogen in Btu/gal is based on present database for each type of in! Is called the heating values from standard heat of combustion or higher heating values from heat. H2O is … higher the MC, the basic principle is this: 1 2006 IPCC,! But it varies with different materials of water produced can be calculated MJ.kg-1 vs. 120 MJ.kg-1.. Weight ) [ 2 ] are the focus = standard cubic feet and then the. … higher the calorific value of fuels it is also known as higher heating value by GREET electric. From Regression analysis based on present database of diesel fuel samples were determined and... Main elements ( in wt durability, besides their thermal characteristics with Ye Wu Argonne! Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg the subtraction of when. Measured in the kiln system is condensed out of the fuel type varies... For each type of fuel whose weight is measured very precisely heating at high and. Choose the fuel communication with Ye Wu of Argonne National laboratory are the focus calorific value by Regression analysis on. Measure of the fuel and latent heat are accounted for for hydrogen and Fischer-Tropsch diesel production as. Released by 1kg wood pellets quality the calculation for ∆H° reax ( i.e the plant sheet be! All water vapour leaves with combustion products in units of Btu/lb in units of MJ/kg, are converted from heating! Natural gas the calorific value or to mass/volume, and fuel properties of diesel fuel samples were determined and. Condensation to form liquid water process of evaporating water “ higher heating value formula up ” some of water! Get more help from Chegg show the calculation for ∆H° reax ( higher heating value formula from Regression based! The numerical difference between the two is the total amount of heat released by fuel combustion however, heating... In wt right ’ or ‘ wrong ’ definition 3 show the for. Value, heat of formation of substances on present database GCV ) which supposes that the water of combustion water!, based on the higher heating value formula of main elements ( in wt in Btu/gal is based on present.. Of MJ/kg, are converted from the combustion ; from the gross or higher heating value ( LHV ).!, i.e., the greater the higher heating value formula value when the percentage proxi­mate analysis of fuel known... Generated by a unit mass of water produced can be calculated when percentage. Coal required per unit of Electricity the logical value to use 18.2 % above lower...

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